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Metal cutting fluid composition and choice
Add Time:[2011-08-14 18:18:11]   Hits:973    Print  Close

Metal cutting fluid composition and choice

According to China's current market conditions, the main components of the cutting fluid as follows.

(1) oil or oil-base liquid: belong to ASTM D 2881 classification of Ⅰ-A, B,-C, habitually called cutting oils (also called clear cutting oil), it is based of mineral oil, including or excluding additives.
(2) emulsion: belong to ASTM D 2881 classification of Ⅱ-A, B,-C, someone call it dissolve oil. According to the mineral oil content and the oil droplets particle size can be divided into 3 kinds: crude emulsion: 65% ~ 80% of oil, the oil droplets particle size 2 ~ 10 u m; micro emulsion:  40% ~ 50% of oil, s oil droplets particle size < 1 u m; semi synthetic emulsion: oil 5% ~ 40%, oil droplets particle size about 0.1 u m;
(3) synthetic liquid: oil or does not include any oil content, soluble in water, polymer organics is the main lubricant.
(4) chemical solution: no oil, belong to ASTM D 2881 Ⅲ of classification.

From the above components it is clear that the cutting oil lubricity is the best. The crude, micro emulsion, and semi synthetic emulsion also have quite a good lubrication performance if they are proper preparation. At present the crude emulsion and the micro emulsion is extensively most appliled. Used for heavy cutting load of the emulsion is necessary to contain extreme pressure additives. Synthetic liquid emulsion is the supplement products to emulsions. This liquid are commonly used in specific purposes. Some synthetic liquid in use due to the increase of concentration, its difficult cleaning would causes damage operator's skin and machine's coating. Chemical solution does not contain a mineral oil. Before using, it is diluted and has the good flush, cooling effect. And it is also able to prevent the contact area of rust. This kind of liquid is mainly used for grinding. Its function is clean and cooling, no lubrication. The choice of cutting fluid, firstly to avoid using harmful liquids to the machine tool, cutting tools and machining material. Usually, does not contain the free sulfur of sulfurized oil that is used in processing steel and copper. And some copper alloy and high nickel alloy, in sulfur agent (in particular with free sulfur) under the action of it, will produce dark spot mark. The composition of water-based cutting fluid is more complex, this is because it takes account of the stability of the emulsion system, both must consider the composition of HLB value, and  achieve the balance of each performance. Due to water cutting fluid is based of water, you need to  consider the composition of water soluble or the nature of the dispersed in water.

Key word: cutting fluid, lubrication, lubricity, additives, grinding machine

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